Bluebird Box Monitoring
April 28, 2015
Although pesticides and competition negatively impacted bluebirds in the early and mid-20th century, they have recovered well in recent years and are stable or increasing both as breeding and wintering birds. In fact, the most recent Concord Christmas Bird Count - the 55th - recorded 643 of the birds; a number 40% higher than in any previous count. Much of this recovery is thanks to bluebird boxes that provide nesting locations for the cavity nesters.
In 2015, SVT is monitoring a total of 48 boxes in Framingham, Southborough, Sudbury, Wayland, and Westborough by 12 dedicated volunteers.
Monitoring nestboxes alerts us to problems birds may be having with predators and competitors. House sparrows (sometimes called English sparrows) and European starlings are non-native species introduced from Europe. Their aggressive seizure of cavity nest sites is a primary reason for declines in eastern bluebird populations.
Purple Loosestrife Bio-Control Project
April 27, 2015
Our wetlands are being severely threatened by purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Purple loosestrife is a highly invasive, perennial aquatic plant that grows from persistent roots. The annual stems can reach 9 feet tall and form a crown that can be up to 5 feet wide. The showy, magenta flowering stems end in a 4-16 inch flowering spike.
In the mid to late 1800’s, purple loosestrife traveled to northeastern port cities as ship ballast from European tidal flats. When this ballast was dumped for the return trip to Europe, a major seed source remained along the eastern seaboard. For the next 100 years it was a pioneer species while it acclimated to the northeastern seaboard and the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Purple loosestrife outcompetes native vegetation and can quickly adapt to environmental changes. Wildlife and birds of all kinds are displaced from wetland habitat when they lose their food source, nesting material, and ground cover.
In order to preserve wetland ecosystems, many organizations across the country have initiated a purple loosestrife biological control program. Biological control is the control of an invasive species using a natural predator. These programs have had success in lowering the density and slowing the spread of purple loosestrife. The most popular biological control agent for purple loosestrife is Galerucella beetles. These beetles eat and breed specifically on purple loosestrife.
SVT is participating with a purple loosestrife bio-control project in 2015. The program is being coordinated by the SuAsCo CISMA (Cooperative Invasive Plant Management Area). CISMA is a partnership of private and government conservation organizations working together to combat invasive species in our watershed.
To establish a population of Galerucella beetles capable of impacting purple loosestrife, large numbers need to be introduced. Luckily, these leaf-eating beetles are prolific given the right conditions.
We started by creating an “artificial wetland”, kiddie pools filled with water. Purple loosestrife root stock was dug up shortly after snowmelt and planted in individual containers in the kiddie pools.
As the plants grew, we monitored for diseases, parasites, and any potential beetle predators. Nets were used to keep predators and parasites out and later to keep the Galerucella beetles in. Adult beetles were ordered from a lab in New Jersey and arrived in early June, when the loosestrife was large enough to support them.
Ten to fifteen beetles were added to each plant and they quickly began to breed. A female will lay about 10 eggs a day for several weeks. Estimates range from 500-2,000 beetles that will be produced from one plant.
The first generation of offspring will typically emerge in 5-8 weeks, depending on conditions. Ours started to emerge after 6 weeks and as of July 27th, 30 plants inoculated with beetles have now being introduced to purple loosestrife sites selected by CISMA along the Sudbury River.
Small Field Restoration
April 27, 2015
Sudbury Valley Trustees staff, volunteers and neighbors have been working together to restore the Waters and Weir field at the corner of Grove and Edmands Road in Framingham. SVT has had the field mowed annually (by the Hansons). However, over time, invasive plants such as multiflora rose and Oritental bittersweet vine have steadily encroached, negatively impacting the habitat and the view. Clearing out the invasive brush will restore the meadow habitat as well as provide for a more pleasant viewing experience. Additionally, SVT has been using biocontrol to reduce the abundance and vigor of the invasive purple loosestrife in the field. This entails the release of a beetle (Galerucella) that feeds only on purple loosestrife. The field hosts, among others, eastern bluebirds, common yellowthroats, and American woodcock. We would like to especially thank Pam Keeney, Dave Panich, Dave Moore, Bill Fadden and George Harrington for their efforts and support in moving this project forward.
Partnership to Monitor and Protect Cold-Water Streams
December 31, 2012
Sudbury Valley Trustees (SVT) is partnering with the Organization for the Assabet, Sudbury and Concord Rivers (OARS) to monitor and protect local streams. OARS received a $20,768 grant from the Massachusetts Environmental Trust. The grant funds work to assess, protect and restore streams with native brook trout in Sudbury, Hudson and Marlborough. This funding will enable OARS to assess current conditions, establish longer-term stream temperature monitoring to assess climate change impacts, and identify threats to habitat in the four Sudbury River streams known to have wild brook trout populations. Other partners include the Sudbury and Marlborough Conservation Commissions, Greater Boston Trout Unlimited, and USGS Conte Fish Research Laboratory.
“It is wonderful to find native brook trout living so close to the metropolitan Boston area,” noted Suzanne Flint, project leader and OARS Staff Scientist. The proposal and effort builds on the results from the joint effort by MassWildlife, GBTU, SVT, and the Sudbury Conservation Commission, investigating streams in the town of Sudbury. The OARS project will contribute to a cutting-edge study of the impacts of climate disruption on local habitat and wildlife by the USGS Conte Lab. OARS’ water and air temperature monitoring will be the eastern-most trout habitat data of the larger climate change study. “Native brook trout are a key cold water species for measuring the impact of climate disruption on local habitat,” she added.
Volunteer “citizen scientists” will be trained by OARS to assess stream condition and collect temperature and trout spawning data. “Increasing the resilience of water resources, like these tributaries, is an important aspect of adapting to climate disruption so that drinking water, wildlife habitat and recreation are protected,” said Alison Field-Juma, OARS Executive Director.
According to Trust Executive Director Bill Hinkley, the Trust will provide roughly $500,000 in grants to more than 15 organizations this year, thanks to motorists who choose to purchase one of the Trust’s specialty license plates. “Trust plates, including our signature Whaletail and Trout plates, are the only specialty plates that exclusively fund environmental initiatives,” said Hinkley. “You purchase a plate from the Registry of Motor Vehicles and half the registry fee is donated to the Trust to fund water-focused environmental education and protection programs.”
A local success story, the Trust has become the Commonwealth’s premier environmental philanthropy since its inception in 1988. Its primary source of income is environmental license plate revenue which has funded more than 400 grants totaling approximately $15 million. “Since its inception, MET’s support of innovative research and outreach has been incredibly important to improving the management and enjoyment of our rivers,” noted Field-Juma.
It is easy to support environmental education, conservation or public awareness efforts funded by the Trust. Choose an environmental plate (Right Whale & Roseate Terns, Leaping Brook Trout, or Blackstone Valley Mill) when you purchase a new car or renew your registration with the Registry of Motor Vehicles. The initial registration fee for your new plate is $50. The special plate fee is an additional $40 ($28 is tax-deductible; $12 is to manufacture the plate). Total first-time cost of your Specialty Plate is $90, with a renewal fee of $90 every two years. Visit your local Registry of Motor Vehicles or order a plate online at www.mass.gov/rmv; or log onto www.mass.gov/eea/met where you can learn more about the Trust, the programs it supports, and the specialty license plate offerings.
Desert Natural Area Habitat Restoration
October 2, 2012
Current Project Status
Visit our Desert Natural Area Pitch Pine/Scrub Oak Habitat Restoration and Prescribed Fire FAQs pages for information about this project. Information will be updated there throughout the restoration project.
Greenways North Field Habitat Restoration
September 25, 2012
Look what’s happening at Greenways! Gone are the shrubs and in a field that just a few years ago was dominated by invasive plants such as Glossy buckthorn, Multiflora rose, and Purple loosestrife, an open field habitat has emerged. Due to diligent management practices, SVT has been able to see a marked decline in the presence of these aggressive invasive species. Now, with invasive control efforts winding down, SVT is able to start planting for the future! With a suite of native grasses and wildflowers being planted this summer, the North Field at the Greenways Conservation Area begins the next step of its restoration back into a habitat where a diversity of butterflies and other pollinators will soon find a new home.
In 1995, our regional botanist, Frances Clark, described the north field as being “rich in both upland and wet meadow plant species.” She went on to say that “the field has the greatest diversity of butterflies of any other habitat at the Greenways Conservation Area. The numbers and coverage of invasive exotic species is low at this time.”
Sadly, over the last 17 years, the quality of the field has dramatically declined. The native flora diversity has declined precipitously, as has the number and diversity of butterflies. Glossy buckthorn has spread and dominates the central and eastern portions of the field. Multiflora rose is also common in the field. Native plant diversity has declined with sensitive fern being dominant.
SVT initiated limited habitat restoration from 2005 to 2007. With a grant from the Massachusetts Landowner Incentives Program, we hired a contractor to clear the field perimeters of invasive shrubs. However, the glossy buckthorn in the field interior remained a problem that would require use of herbicides to effectively control.
In 2012 as part of a CISMA project, SVT received a grant from the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation’s Pulling Together Initiative. SVT hired the New England Wild Flower Society to conduct selective herbiciding of plants in the field. Volunteers are also assisting with this effort. It will require several years of treatment to yield the ultimate goal of reducing the invasive plant cover by over 75% and increasing the native plant and butterfly diversity.
Birds abound at Cedar Hill
November 9, 2011
By Laura Mattei
Six years ago we plunged into an ambitious project to restore shrubland habitat on the top and south-facing slope at the Cedar Hill Reservation in Northborough. Before we started the project, the former pasture was a mix of old field, shrubs, and small trees. Over several years we cleared 16 acres.
The land clearing was simple, but dealing with the resultant surge of invasive plant growth was not. Bush honeysuckle and Oriental bittersweet grew back with a vengeance in grand profusion. Invasive plants love disturbance and lots of sunlight. Over several years, we hired certified applicators to selectively spray herbicide on the invasive plants.
If you take a walk at Cedar Hill today, you will find a mix of grasses, forbs and shrubs. We have significantly increased plant diversity throughout. Based on the results of our photo-point monitoring and vegetation survey, we have significantly reduced invasive plant cover; however, we must remain vigilant. We will most likely need to do another herbicide treatment to keep the invasive plants under control.
Our primary goal for the project was to create habitat for shrubland bird species that have suffered recent population declines. We succeeded! Within just a few years, target bird species arrived to nest at the site. These birds include the perky prairie warbler, the buzzy blue-winged warbler, and the stunningly beautiful indigo bunting. While Eastern towhees had already been common at the site, we would have lost them had we let the land succeed to forest.
What’s missing? Native shrubs. While we have an excellent diversity of native plants, including some native shrubs and small trees, we are missing many of the native shrubs we would want to see at this site, such as high bush blue berry and arrowwood viburnum. Our next step will be an attempt to reintroduce more native shrubs to the site. We may do this by collecting and propagating seeds from nearby sources, and then planting the young plants. Deer browsing threatens young plants and we will need to encircle plants with wire mesh while they become established.
This is a long-term project. We are fortunate to have achieved such positive results in such a short period of time, but we have many more years of effort to reach our full biodiversity goal.
2011 Turtle Survey Summary
August 3, 2011
By Erin Snook, SVT-Americorps Community Outreach Coordinator
The goals for the Great Turtle Search were: 1) to reach out to local communities and involve neighbors in conservation by providing an active learning opportunity, and 2) to survey common and rare turtles living in the Desert Natural Area (including SVT's General Federation of Women's Clubs of Massachusetts Memorial Forest in Sudbury and Marlborough) to gain a general sense of turtle presence.
From April to June, we conducted 15 formal turtle surveys that brought over 130 volunteers into the Desert Natural Area. With advice from turtle experts, we focused our search on areas where we thought we were most likely to find turtles. On most of the surveys, volunteers were able to find turtles, especially when they were held on warm, sunny mornings. The majority of the turtles seen were painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). The official count on painted sightings (those recorded on data sheets by survey leaders) is 16, but we know from anecdotal accounts that the number was much higher; probably closer to 50. The occasional snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentine) was also seen and several turtle nest sites were documented in sandy areas. There is a video of a nesting snapping turtle on Nature Sightings.
When the project began, we knew that the likelihood of finding rare turtles (Massachusetts Species of Special Concern: eastern box turtles, wood turtles and Blanding’s turtles; and spotted turtles, recently de-listed Species of Special Concern) was not great. They are true to their “rare” status! However, we worked to set up surveys in the prime habitats for these species and encouraged our dedicated volunteers to spend as much time in the Desert Natural Area as possible. Previous scientific studies have shown that, more than large numbers of people, a high number of man-hours produces the most rare turtle sightings.
The first spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata) was seen in a stream at the end of April. An eastern box turtle (Terrapene Carolina) was seen in its typical shrub-scrub habitat in late May, then another in early July. Another spotted turtle was observed while nesting in June.
I am currently working on a report of our project and findings that I will send to the conservation landowners of the Desert Natural Area. Landowners can use this information as biological data to take into consideration as they plan the management of their properties. When healthy populations of rare species are determined to exist on a property, landowners often choose to manage/increase habitat that supports the particular animal. Rare species reports have been sent to the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. More information on habitat management can be found in the May, 2011 report by NHESP, “Eastern Box Turtle Conservation Plan for Massachusetts”.
Sudbury Valley Trustees may decide to conduct additional turtle surveys in 2012, but they will likely be on a smaller scale.
April 6, 2011
Download the final report and maps from SVT's Invasive Plant Species Mapping of the Desert Natural Area (updated March 2011)
SVT endeavors to maximize the biological and ecological value of its properties. In some cases this requires active habitat restoration. Designing and enacting a management plan for a successful restoration requires an initial assessment of current conditions. The cover story of our June 2009 newsletter focused on restoring biological diversity at the Desert Natural Area, 900 acres of conserved lands in Marlborough and Sudbury, and the location of SVT’s Memorial Forest. One of the important surveys that we are conducting is locating and mapping invasive plant species.
When SVT put out a call for assistance on this project, fifteen volunteers enthusiastically responded. This group met on multiple evenings at our headquarters at Wolbach Farm for a project overview and for training that included learning to identify the more common invasives, such as oriental bittersweet, glossy buckthorn, and Japanese barberry. Additionally, all were instructed in mapping methodology and learned how to use a GPS. The volunteers then went on site, working in teams of 2-4 people, with SVT staff performing spot checks for quality control. Mapping focused on “disturbance corridors,” which included existing trails, a rail line and a gas pipeline. These areas were targeted because invasive plants are known to invade along disturbed and developed areas. Some volunteers were also assigned to “bushwhacking” locations to see if invasive plants were also found in relatively undisturbed habitat.
Volunteers helping Stewardship with this endeavor included Anne Marie Brostrup-Jensen, Doug Johnson, Karin Paquin and Betty Wright of Marlborough, Renate Hanauer, Nancy Lomas, and Julie Theroux of Framingham, Jan Hardenbergh, Aiko Pinkoski, and Kate Ruh of Sudbury, Patrice McCabe and Craig Smith of Hudson, Brian Graves of Maynard, Bill Green of Cambridge, Dylan Harrison-Atlas of Newton, Cameron Shorb of Lincoln, and Holly Estes, Groton resident and Sudbury Public School teacher.
When asked about the experience, volunteers displayed a collective enthusiasm, describing it as an opportunity to meet or reconnect with friends, learn something new, help solve a problem, and have fun in the out-of-doors. For Betty Wright this area was already of interest. “I have been doing a Botanical Inventory for the Desert Natural Area and the Invasive Mapping compliments the Inventory and gives me a deeper understanding of the plants and their distribution within this area. This will be very useful as I get deeper into what I am doing next year.” Craig Smith “enjoyed the chance to get out into the field and put mapping and plant identification skills to a useful purpose.” Karin Paquin stressed the opportunity to work as a team. “It was a lot of fun to go out on the trail as a team, identify invasives and know that this is part of a longer term process to not only identify problem areas in Memorial Forest but to eventually design and execute an eradication strategy. We learned a lot about the forest and the different habitats within the forest. We also learned a lot about each other. I was very fortunate to be teamed up with a botanist so there were many ‘teachable moments.’ We learned a lot about other native species on the way. We even found a couple of relatively rare native plants!”
The primary complaint from the volunteers seemed to be that they now see the proliferation of invasive plants everywhere they go. Aiko Pinkoski recounts, “I have learned so much about invasives and how they are all around us that I now recognize them all over the place! I'm now trying to do some control in my own yard and also helping with a town-wide volunteer effort.” Doug Johnson bemoans “invasives are everywhere, in museum parking lots, fancy hotel entrances, trails, streams, roads, friend’s yards. It is driving me crazy!”
Fortunately complaints are a very minor part of what the volunteers expressed. Doug Johnson also mentions, “I felt like we were really doing something useful. SVT and specifically Laura Mattei (Director of Stewardship) are the very best in volunteer coordination, communication and recognition. The training and support for this project was, as always, excellent.” Kate Ruh, as well, stresses the satisfaction of accomplishment. “I learned a lot about invasive plants and their impact on the environment. It was really satisfying to see the big picture and know that I contributed something to that.”
Funding for the invasive mapping projects was provided by the Hollis Declan Leverett Memorial Fund (administered by Bank of America) and the National Park Service’s River Stewardship Council.
Thanks to these willing volunteers, SVT has far exceeded its mapping goal for the year, completing the entire Memorial Forest and most of the Desert Natural Area. We have prepared maps illustrating the abundance and distribution of each invasive species. These same volunteers have committed to completing the remainder of the mapping next season and working on removal of small, isolated populations of invasive plants. We are most grateful to all these volunteers. This huge undertaking would never have been possible without their able and dedicated assistance.
August 2, 2010
For more current updates on other conservation partners also involved in this effort, see the Sudbury-Assabet-Concord River Watershed Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (CISMA) web site.
In July 2010, Sudbury Valley Trustees and our partners released thousands of purple-loosestrife-eating beetles to six wetlands in our watershed: French’s Meadow in Concord, Lincoln conservation land, Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Sudbury, Hop Brook marshes at SVT’s Memorial Forest in Sudbury, and Jericho Hill in Marlborough. Many volunteers assisted throughout the project – from digging up loosestrife rootballs to raising loosestrife and beetles, to releasing beetles and conducting monitoring. Partners involved in the project include the Town of Lincoln, US Fish & Wildlife Service Eastern Refuge complex, Concord Land Conservation Trust, Fay School, and Marlborough High School.
Beetle ranchers, those who raised the beetles, included Marlborough High School teacher, Linda Ryan and students from her environmental science classes and A.J. Purcell and students from his science classes at Fay School in Southborough. Other high school students were involved in different aspects of the project as well. Ms. Ryan reports that, “The students learned a lot about invasive species and how they gain a foothold and choke out native species. They took responsibility for caring for the plants and the beetles. This hands-on learning made these lessons stick. In addition, four of the students taught a lesson on invasive species and biocontrol (with an emphasis on purple loosestrife and Galerucella beetles) to an 8th grade class.” Mr. Purcell comments that his students “were very fascinated with seeing and learning about biological controls, and did some research on how this project and other biological control projects which have been undertaken in the past, with both positive and negative results.”
Purple loosestrife is the pretty, purple flower that you can view in abundance along the Sudbury River and in other wet meadows. It is an aggressively invasive plant, originally from Europe and Asia. In the United States, there are no native "predator" species that control purple loosestrife populations. As a result, this invasive plant spreads rapidly in wetlands and causes significant impairments, including reduced native plant coverage, lower plant diversity, and degraded wildlife habitat.
Biocontrol agents are natural competitors imported from the invasive species’ native landscape to a location where the invasive is growing out of control. For purple loosestrife, select species of beetles from Europe (where purple loosestrife is native) were studied to demonstrate their effectiveness as biocontrol agents. These beetles (Galerucella sp.) have been used successfully in the United States since the early 1990s to control purple loosestrife infestations. Treatments have occurred in all the New England states, including Massachusetts, where beetles were first released at Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Results in our watershed have been very positive, and there have been no negative impacts on our native flora and insects.
SVT and our partners will be monitoring these sites annually to evaluate success of the program. Similar projects in our region have shown positive results in three to five years, significantly reducing the vigor and abundance of purple loosestrife.
This project was funded in part by the National Park Service’s River Stewardship Council via the SuAsCo Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (CISMA). Non-native, invasive species of plants are changing the watershed of the Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Rivers, altering habitats and disrupting ecological processes. The impacts of invasives do not stop at property boundaries, and all efforts to control them need to take this into account. SVT is part of a new coalition called the SuAsCo Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (CISMA), which is addressing issues of both invasive plants and animals. Our partners in this endeavor include the US Fish & Wildlife Service, Mass Audubon, the National Park Service, New England Wildflower Society and several municipalities and local land trusts. This collaboration provides for a regional approach to invasive species management, across ownership and organizational boundaries. Collectively we are sharing resources and expertise and are prioritizing species and sites requiring management.